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My concluding chapter illustrates the process and challenges involved in de- veloping a bilingual program. This chapter also synthesizes the contents of the book to answer the question that led me to write it: What do we need to do to have quality bilingual education? Education of bilingual students is a complex enter- prise impossible to address with simple formulas.

It is not, however, an impossi- ble quest. Implementation of the recommendations synthesized in this book needs a flexible approach that considers each individual school situation. Rigor does not always require rigidity. The focus, rather, should be the real-life situation experi- enced by every teacher. The best educational practices originate from knowing students, their families, and communities. As a guide for teachers and educators, I have chosen to illustrate with real-life examples rather than prescribed formulas.

There is a lot of research and experience to prove it, despite claims to the contrary heralded by opponents of bilingual education. The pieces of the educational puz- zle exist, but they are scattered. Schools need to study the field and have the politi- cal will to put these pieces together freed from restrictive ideologies that reject parts of the puzzle. The major pieces include the research on effective schools, language, and culture; the role of families; and the characteristics of the students themselves.

Although the focus of this book is on improving bilingual education programs in the United States, many of the ideas can be used in schools in the United States where there are bilingual students but no bilingual programs. The framework can also help define policies and practices in other countries. Regardless of how the debate on bilingual education is resolved, bilingual and immigrant students throughout the world require thoughtful and empathetic attention. Since the first edition, I have been involved in projects that have allowed me to refine my thinking on success, to document success, and to help develop a program using the characteristics of successful programs as a guide.

In addition, the turn of events in the past several years has deeply affected bilingual education in the United States. The second edition reflects all these changes. The introduction of the first edition has become chapter 1. To it, I have added the definition of success that frames the content of the book. I have also added a review of how the research on bilingual education has changed, focusing on dif- ferent aspects of programs to demonstrate success.

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Much has been added to chap- ter 2, including major changes in demographics and legislation. Since the first edi- tion there have been steady attempts to dismantle bilingual education at the state level beginning with the passage of Proposition in California. At the federal level, major changes were brought about by the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act A few additional models have been added, including some popular in Europe, to show the contrast with the United States.

Whereas in the United States there is increasing support for monolingualism, in Europe tri- and quatrilingual programs are emerging. The external and internal factors affect- ing learners chap. A section on peers was added. Peers have particular influence on adolescents. Chapter 5 has been updated throughout, especially the sections on teaching content areas and assess- ment. Much has been added to the sections on teaching English in English as well.

Chapter 7 has an exten- sive new section that describes and analyzes the use of the conditions for quality education as a guide to help create a new program. The practice of creating quality bilingual education demonstrates its possibilities and difficulties. Documenting this process highlights the need for collaboration and support to achieve quality education. I have eliminated the appendixes that included instructional strategies. Since the first edition I published another book, Literacy and Bilingualism: A Handbook for All Teachers , which includes, in depth, these instructional methodologies.

I could not have produced this book without Bill, my husband and an American native English speaker. The final manuscript resulted from endless discussions about content and organization and careful review of the drafts. I owe my inspiration to teachers and principals I have worked with over the years and bilingual students I have interviewed and observed. You will meet them throughout this book. Sheer numbers and confidentiality preclude me from nam- ing them all. I am also grateful to my own students, who throughout my career have shared their wisdom and their labor, particularly Ester deJong, with whom I wrote a paper reflecting the seed of my notions on the conditions necessary for good bilingual education; Daniella Padula, who collaborated in the project re- ported in the last chapter; and Courtney Clayton, who helped me with the present update.

I dedicate this book to my mother, who taught me that bilingualism is desir- able, and to my daughter and granddaughters, who demonstrated that it is possible to become bilingual, bicultural, and academically successful in the United States. Downloaded by [Universiti Teknologi MARA] at 27 September 1 Pursuing Successful Schooling Much of the debate on bilingual education is politically motivated, more suitable for talk shows than for improving schools. The United States can create quality bilingual education for the increasingly diverse student population, but only if we observe what really happens in our schools.

If we continue to deal with bilingual education as a label, the sterile debate on how abruptly language minority stu- dents should be Americanized and Anglicized will continue to isolate many of our students. This book explores the abundant, though often inconsistent, research on the education of bilingual students.

It also provides a personal testament to what I have observed in classrooms, in consulting with schools, and in training teachers for challenging roles in bilingual education. When I attended a bilingual school in Latin America, bilingual education was viewed as quality education delivered in two languages. The elite eagerly enrolled their children in schools that offered, in addition to the regular curriculum, the op- portunity to master at least two languages, the prerequisite, many believed, to voca- tional and social success.

These values inhere in a number of bilingual schools throughout the world Fishman, Yet in the United States, the term bilingual education evokes a different meaning. It refers to the education of children whose home language is not English. Bilingual education is often associated with urban education where the children of immigrants often find themselves in compensatory programs and where high dropout rates are viewed as the failure of students rather than the failure of the system.

Bilingual students are often branded as not only chil- dren whose English is inferior, but as students who are themselves inferior. To educate such students successfully requires educational practices based on understanding how children learn languages and tailored to the talents and needs of language minority students. Their entry into American society requires that they learn English and adjust to the American culture.

However, it is not neces- sary, or wise, that they do so at the cost of their native language and culture that, for many, are the foundations for their learning. Strong bilingual schools or pro- grams not only meet the needs of bilingual students but also introduce monolin- gual students to diverse cultures and languages. Rather than eliminate other lan- guages and cultures in U.

Downloaded by [Universiti Teknologi MARA] at 27 September 2 Chapter 1 Certain factors such as family background, socioeconomic status, educational level of students and their families, and status of the language and ethnic group in the society undeniably affect schooling. The danger increases when teachers and administrators stereotype students on the basis of such factors, limiting expecta- tions and opportunities.

This book attempts to overcome such stereotypes, concentrating on what schools can do for bilingual learners. Careful review of the extensive research bearing on bilingual students indicates how to organize schools to provide good education for such students. However, before addressing the focus of this book— how to achieve quality bilingual education for language minority students—a few definitions are necessary: Who are bilingual and bicultural individuals, what is educational success, and what is compensatory and quality education? Traditionally, only full fluency in two languages was accepted as bilingualism Bloomfield, This narrow definition has evolved with the study of bilingualism.

Individuals are now generally considered bilingual even if their knowledge of a second language is limited. Personal and social variables, independent of instruction, influence language development and language loss of bilinguals. Language status, attitudes, motiva- tion, size of the ethnic community, and need affect second language acquisi- tion and maintenance of the native language Dorian, ; Gardner, ; Schumann, ; Spolsky, Therefore bilingual students present a variety of profiles, depending on the level of development of each lan- guage, whether they are literate in either or both, to what extent they use each lan- guage, and for which purpose.

Bilingual education in the modern era

Bilinguals have a unique ability to shift languages. While communicating with monolinguals they partially deactivate their other language. To communicate with similar bilinguals they make use of both languages, alternating and even mixing the languages. This process, called codeswitching, is a natural phenomenon and not evidence of poor language skills.

On the contrary, bilingual children develop. Bi- linguals alternate languages for many reasons. Often a word in the other language comes to mind first or more accurately expresses the meaning. Change in lan- guage is prompted by topic, addressee, environment, or the need to call attention to, to give emphasis to, or to express solidarity with an ethnic group Mackey, ; Romaine, The definition of culture—like that of bilingualism—has gone through redefi- nition.

The classical view of culture was based on the notion of uniform and static knowledge and behavior transmitted through generations. This dynamic process is nourished by life experiences. The backgrounds of bilingual students vary greatly and thus do not fit a neatly defined cultural paradigm. Many enter a new cultural environment when they move to the United States. Socialized to a culture in their home country, they now enter schools that operate according to different cultural norms.

The socialization of children born in the United States to immigrant parents or families that use lan- guages other than English transcends cultural and linguistic boundaries because members of their extended family who interact with the children are cross- cultural individuals transformed by the contact between the ethnic and American cultures. Both languages and diverse cultural experiences play a role in the perform- ance, behavior, and attitudes of bilinguals.

Introduction of a new language and en- counter with a new culture shock the linguistic, cognitive, and affective systems of bilingual students. Understanding bilinguals as unique individuals with more than one language available to them, rather than as the sum of two monolinguals,1 and influenced by a dynamic cross-cultural experience, rather than rigid cultural stereotypes, is vital for designing school policy, classroom practices, and assess- ment procedures.

Bilingual students are especially successful academically and socially when they value and cultivate their bilingualism and feel adjusted to both their heritage culture and their host culture. Schools and families who promote bi- lingualism and sociocultural integration ease the adjustment of children to the new social environment.

Often schools attend to the needs of those students who are not fluent in Eng- lish but do not view as bilinguals those students who also know English. For ex- ample, a Korean American first grader fluent in English and Korean was not mak- ing much progress in an English remedial reading class in a suburban school.

Teachers 1 1See Grosjean for a complete discussion on the contrasting views of a bilingual as two monolinguals versus a distinct individual. Downloaded by [Universiti Teknologi MARA] at 27 September 20 Chapter 2 dents representing close to different languages live in immigrant-headed households. Many families settle in the suburbs as well. About , immigrant children attend- ing our schools are undocumented Green, In western states, such as California, almost 1. But this increasing wave of linguistic diversity is: not only an urban or southwestern phenomenon—schools across the country are en- countering growing numbers of children from immigrant families.

Even in places like Dodge City, Kansas, more than 30 percent of the children enrolled in public schools are the children of immigrants. Many of these students have been reported as LEP, as measured by English language tests. It is estimated that nearly 4,, LEP students were enrolled in public schools pre-K through grade 12 for the — school year.

This is approximately 9. It is also important to note that the percentage increase of LEP students was a dramatic In —, LEP students nationwide spoke over languages. The presence of bilingual students in U. Educators and policy makers must consider their needs and potential contribution to our education system. The mul- tiplicity of languages and the complex nature of bilinguals render a complicated but exciting educational field for research, practice, and educational innovation.

Unfortunately, languages become entangled in political battles, dragging the edu- cation and the future of innocent children into such conflicts. Like it or not, the United States is highly multilingual. Fashions in using language in education and atti- tudes toward bilingualism have undergone many changes since the United States. The changing models of education and research perspec- tives reflect shifting political moods rather than sound educational and linguistic research.

During the initial colonization of the United States, European settlers used the languages of their countries of origin. The Continental Congress considered French and German important for political purposes. It recognized the need to dis- seminate information among disparate populations to broaden the cause of inde- pendence Heath, The settlers established schools that educated their chil- dren in their own languages, especially French, German, Spanish, and Swedish, while teaching English as a second language.

The presence of many languages in U. There was, however, concern for seek- ing a common language, especially to conduct government affairs Heath. The original colonies and territories incorporated later into the Union comprised local governments that used different languages, such as German in Pennsylvania, French in Louisiana, and Spanish in New Mexico and California.

English, never- theless, always played an important role in the public life of the colonies because from the beginning England colonized the United States. Economic and historic factors helped solidify the position of Eng- lish as the language of government. As immigrants settled during the 19th century, parochial and private schools used the community language for instruction Brisk, a.

When public schools were first established in the s, they often used the language of the population in the area to attract students. Once public schools became more popular than pa- rochial schools, there was less concern for catering to the different linguistic groups Heath, During the first half of the 20th century, English was imposed as the language of instruction in most states.

As many as 34 states enacted laws mandating Eng- lish as the language of instruction. A beam of light in these dark times for bilingualism was the Supreme Court ruling in the case Meyer v. Nebraska Authorities prosecuted a teacher for. Downloaded by [Universiti Teknologi MARA] at 27 September 22 Chapter 2 teaching a year-old to read German under Nebraska laws that prohibited teach- ing in any language other than English before Grade 8 in either public or private schools. The Supreme Court overturned the conviction because the right of a teacher to pursue his or her vocation is guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.

Nebraska, p. Such a dramatic shift from tolerating to rejecting languages other than English has multiple explanations. Bilingual Education. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address.

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Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. All Rights Reserved. Cancel Submit. Some believe the bilingual education is necessary for those that do not speak English as their first language; others feel that bilingual education gives people an excuse not to learn English. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a casual analysis of this issue. The discussion will begin with background information about bilingual classes.

The paper will also contain a current evaluation of the situation. The discussion will also present a casual argument of the topic and a counterclaim. This discussion will seek to prove that bilingual education in its current form must be reformed or eliminated. Bilingual Introspective. Proponents of dual language education assert that the long-term education of students benefits from a bilingual approach primarily because it facilitates cognitive development and is, thereby, a better method to address an achievement gap Jost, A short-term focus Jost, Education for ESL Learners.

The article begins by considering the nature and prevalence of this population, postulating that students from this category have come to outnumber native English speakers in American schools. This emphasizes the importance of effective English language instruction for such learners, since it would empower them to access better opportunities in the future and to become contributing members of society.

According to the authors, however, educational policy in certain states hinders the ability of these students to access adequate language learning in English. In Arizona, for example, the policy is based upon Proposition , which was approved for Arizona in November This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion SEI , by which students are to learn English only by means of…… [Read More].

Education Philosophy - Curricula Considering. Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter.

Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college and advanced academic degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory. As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…… [Read More]. Students Should Be Bilingual Evolution.

Moreover, if a student asked to be transferred to a mainstream class he or she did not receive approval. Errors in the U. So far, nothing seems to be out of the ordinary, but the strange thing is that they've been put to learn alongside Chinese speaking students also involved in bilingual programs. The motive for this is that the only available places that the black students could fill had been in the Chinese bilingual classes.

Students that aren't literate in English or Spanish are being prevented from learning English and from fitting in the American society. The people that are not fond of bilingual education programs claim that the theory that children have to…… [Read More]. Value of Multicultural Education Programs. In summary, successful multicultural programs are the ones that keep in mind these long-term goals, ensuring that education keeps in mind the need for both the academic and social success of all its students.

Continuing challenges The fact that multicultural education has proved successful, however, does not erase the need for continued assessment and improvement. After all, as the student population changes, there will be concomitant new demands placed on the educational system as a whole. One of the markers used to measure the success of multicultural education has been the increase in percentage of minority first-generation college students.

Proponents of multicultural education recognize that a successful school program goes beyond traditional academic content. Rather, the most successful programs are the ones that strive towards a "learning community," one that makes students and community members into active participants in their own education. At college and university level, where students are…… [Read More]. American Education America Is Facing. According to the book, studies have shown non-native speaking students or students who have special needs physical or behavioral struggle depression because they are in a different country and away from family.

When I talk to people about their education, from factory workers to physicians, from middle-school to doctoral students, it is telling how many of them call up resonant and emotional memories of events in school that, they claim, have had a potent effect on so many things: their sense of their intelligence, their social competence, their bearing in public spaces" p. Scholars argue whether this is the implication of the alienation to students who form the mainstream population or just one of the effects of being drenched in a multicultural…… [Read More].

Immigration Education in California. Immigration Education in California Few issues create long-lasting controversy, the type of controversy that engages nearly every member of society regardless of their economic, ethnic, intellectual, political, religious, or social background. Examples of such issues are abortion, crime, the death penalty, racism, rape, etc. Another example of such an issue is immigration education in California. This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to immigration education in California.

Part II discusses the materials and methods utilized. Part IV examines the research methods employed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations and potential solutions. Secondary Education. Secondary Education hat is the future like for those who want to become secondary teachers in the coming decades? Quite positive. The baby-boomers are moving into their senior years and the country is becoming more and more gray, yet the teaching profession has not lost its importance. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, between and , the number of teachers for both elementary and secondary schools is projected to rise, primarily due to the increase in school enrollment during this period.

The number of secondary teachers will increase at a faster rate than the number of elementary teachers. Of Labor. Individuals who are presently getting a degree in education or planning to in the next several years, will most likely…… [Read More]. America provides opportunities for all races: America guarantees that one will not be discriminated on the basis on of his race, National origin, gender, age etc.

All citizens in America have the right to an equal education, which includes a bilingual education. Teaching immigrants the English language on an academic level allows them to communicate on a level equivalent to other professionals in the work place. Immigrants who learn the English Language on a communicable level gives him or her the same equal legal rights as natural born Americans, for example-no hidden surprises in legal contracts. Entrepreneurship: Foundations help immigrants start up their own businesses in America.

Immigrants, upon receiving citizenship, have the same rights to own businesses in America as Native Americans. Immigrants of other countries are allowed to contribute their uniqueness to this country when they open…… [Read More]. Special Education Director Leadership Styles. More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing.

Even though it is challenging at times Ospina et al. Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd Qualitative Research Methods Qualitative research methods are those of: 1 Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon. Immigrant Education During the last century, the United States has seen a high rate of immigration from other countries, with inevitable effects on our educational system.

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During the past decade, immigration from Asian nations in particular to the United States has reached an historically unprecedented level. Data indicate that Korea has been one of the top ten sources of immigration during the past two decades, and a large number of these Korean immigrants have settled in California, Su-Je, et. In the classroom this presents an educational problem as teachers may be faced not only with students who don't understand English yet, but multiple such students each speaking a different language.

However, students who don't speak English and…… [Read More]. Education I Read and Will. By working toward and arriving at a workable and agreeable solution, Tombaugh's principal and teachers together demonstrated the power and effectiveness of collective leadership. Cushman March further points out that in today's changing and increasingly demanding educational environment, with the best, most dedicated faculty often not given much credit for all they accomplish, and with increasing pressure placed on educational leaders and faculty alike due to national standards and emphasis on test score performance nationwide, the traditional school hierarchy of principal as leader and the rest as followers, works far less successfully than in the past.

As Cushman states, leadership must instead spring from "reciprocal processes" that help to identify, and work toward, a common purpose. In other words, in today's complex and increasingly demanding educational environment, schools need all the leaders, working together, that they can get. It is also crucial to optimal school success, Cushman adds, that…… [Read More].

Maria Estela Brisk - Lynch School of Education and Human Development - Boston College

American Education. Lives on the Boundary by Mike ose The achievements of ose with his students were successful and exceptional because most of his students were in the circumstances he was once in the discredits most of the educational fallacies and stereotypes that are applied on remedial students and literacy. He also shows how one can succeed in life despite of the background as it is seen when he becomes a teacher and later a director at UCLA The main theme in this book is to show how life can be hard for the remedial students who he argues that they do not fail as a result of intelligence and poor skills but due to limited opportunity and little understanding.

He tells this through his own life experience to show how both social and economic forces play a big role in influencing performance and perception of the unprepared students. He does not…… [Read More]. Over the past five years, Baker has improved its overall performance in terms of measurable outcomes such as test scores and retention rates.

The school covers grades 9 through There are about students enrolled on average every school year, and a total of 95 full-time teachers working at Baker High. Problem Situation Last year, the Principal who had served the school for over ten years retired. The Principal was well liked for her performance and democratic leadership style; albeit occasionally criticized for resisting change.

The incoming Principal ended up being almost the opposite in terms of disposition, leadership style, and educational philosophy. The new Principal, called Skinner for purposes of maintaining anonymity, introduced a series of…… [Read More]. Zuni Education One of the. Klotz the standards of the system have had to rely on standardized accountability curriculum to attempt to make this cooperative concept work. The difficulties are also answered with community emphasis on technology and social growth as well a community involvement in schools and district affairs.

In one of the most poignant addresses to congress, in this case Montana, one of the congressmen demonstrate the fight, in every state for the development of quality schools for Native Americans. If there is to be a solution to the Indian problem in this country, it will only come about when our educational system provides the knowledge This is a matter of pride. All of us are proud of our heritage Are…… [Read More]. Transformative Adult Education Did You. They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation.

Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… [Read More]. Equal Education Opportunities Act Education. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators.

ESL vs. Bilingual Classes

However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education. State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…… [Read More].

Rural Higher Education Higher Education. The study found that while the students sought out information from a variety of sources, the sources they found most valuable were parents, friends, teachers, and school counselors.

Bilingual Education: From Compensatory To Quality Schooling

There are several implications of this study for colleges and universities. First of all, as school counselors were cited as an important resource for information, colleges need to work with counselors to make sure they have up-to-date information. Griffin et al. Morphology and the Education of the ELL. Cultural Case Study: Maria This cultural case study examines the language competencies, social and human capital assets of a Spanish immigrant to the U.

She is 16 and lives in a community where the Hispanic population is considerable. Her family is supportive and engaged in her life and she receives substantial assistance from them. She is motivated and does well in her studies. She is able to practice her L1 and her L2 all the time thanks to a school that is good at helping ELLs and a community that shares in her ethnic background where her L1 is still commonly used among the inhabitants. This paper also provides some simple suggestions for what the school could do to continue to help Maria to achieve her objectives.

Introduction Maria is an ELL who has a strong personal and cultural identity. She is Hispanic -- an immigrant from Spain…… [Read More]. Individualized Education Program - Shawn. He seems to be curious about what kind of options he has in life. He sees his sister enjoying herself very much in her studies and relationships developed at the conservatory and he wants some of those same things for himself. Shawn has shown somewhat of an increased interest in learning to socialize because of his growing interest in girls and romantic relationships. He wants to be evaluated in so far as he has interest in how his social skills and social intelligence stand up to his peers.

Shawn has accepted that he will be evaluated periodically. He does not show overt resistance to his evaluation, and he does not show overt excitement about it, either. He was mostly cooperative with the evaluation team. He expressed that he did not think many of his classmates liked him or even knew who he was.

He mentioned that he recently became interested…… [Read More]. Enlarging the Pool: How Higher Education Partnerships are Recruiting and Supporting Special Educators from Underrepresented Groups" discusses various strategies that educators can adopt to bolster recruitment of minority special educators. There is thus a strong need to "enlarge the pool" of qualified minority special educators.

Numerous strategies have been culled from the multiple strategies adopted in successful school districts. One strategy suggests the development of a "grow-your-own" program, a strategy which works well in rural and sparsely-populated areas. Recruitment begins early, with paraprofessionals and clerical support staff who are already working in minority school districts.

By giving people who are already in the school districts the requisite training, the grow-your-own program can take advantage of the diversity…… [Read More]. Role and Importance of Bilingual Interpreters. The Impact of Using Professional Bilingual Interpreters Abstract Elderly Hispanic patients experience numerous challenges when seeking for healthcare services since they are only eloquent in their native language and are classified as Limited English Proficient LEP patients.

This paper examines patient-provider communication between these patients and healthcare providers. The evaluation is carried out to determine the role and significance of bilingual interpreters in promoting medication adherence among elderly Hispanic patients aged years. The project will be implemented in an outpatient clinic and community center that provides care to different kinds of patients including elderly Hispanics.

This project demonstrates that bilingual interpreters would help promote medication adherence and compliance with treatment among these patients. Keywords: elderly Hispanics, patients, medication adherence, bilingual interpreters, treatment, patient-provider communication, healthcare providers. Introduction Elderly Hispanic between the ages of 50 to 75 is only eloquent in their native language. As a result, they are disenfranchised due to the language barrier which often necessitates for an interpreter.

In urgent medical cases, ad hoc interpreters who are often family members act as interpreters between the patient and the physician. However, the NSW policy stipulates a standard procedure where professionals such as bilingual calls are invited to offer interpretive services under such circumstances. This challenge is prevalent in elderly Hispanic immigrants and Mexican Americans.

There is They are predisposed to diabetic disorders due to cardiometabolic abnormalities. There is a relatively high margin in the prevalence of the disorder…… [Read More]. Four Different Journals on Education. The Colorin Colorado Blog is unique in that it provides a bilingual web resource for teachers of all age groups, and offers basic information about ELLs and ELL teaching strategies, as well as school and family support areas.

I especially appreciated the way that the website offers assistance for parents, and I have since been asking colleagues to translate the material into other languages for use in my classrooms because many of the ELLs in my classroom come from families that do not use either English or Spanish at home. The authors also discuss the ways the TESOL English language proficiency standards can be used to foster collaborations and strategic partnerships.

In Chapter 6,…… [Read More]. Practice Bi-Lingual Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the s and s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers.

Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…… [Read More]. Raymond Williams the Merits and. It also confirms idea that general standardized tests of academic performance are a good means of assessing student's English language ability. The dependent variable of the study was students' performance on language assessment tests geared towards ELL students, and the independent variable was that of performance on general academic assessment test.

However, there was an underlying assumption that the first component of the assessment, namely that of the measured language proficiency was 'correct. There are other problems with the study. First of all, the definition of poverty by assessing student participation in school lunch programs is problematic, given this assumes such programs measure poverty in absolute terms, while the accuracy of their measurements of student poverty has been called into question in recent…… [Read More].

It cannot be denied that NCLB largely tests students on standardized measures that value verbal fluency above all else interestingly, competency in a foreign language is not required in NCLB bilingual students are shown in a poor light, and guidance towards specific prescriptive techniques to suit the individual student's cultural needs, level of fluency, and family situation is not provided by NCLB.

NCLB encourages teaching students how to pass a test rather than fosters the type of skills they need to truly 'own' their learning at worst, or at best, by excludes students from school performance results, which may result in a lack of funding for ESL programs, as opposed to programs that really 'count' towards the magic numbers required to meet district standards. The anthology questions the fundamental assumption that cultural assimilation is a necessary marker of progress in the American school system.

The one potential advantage, albeit a…… [Read More].

Teacher Workshop Teacher's Workshop Is. They wanted their English-speaking population to learn French. Canadians realized English-speaking students were not getting adequate French to get minimum grades in school and to get jobs in French speaking areas of Canada. In , Canada's first French immersion program began and by this program was launched in the United…… [Read More]. The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.

Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.

In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" p. Because these tools…… [Read More].

Enlightening the Far West Community in Terms. Here also the need for the project as an alternative certification, career ladder, special support for teachers, as a means to improving faculty skills and a preparation source for bilingual counselors will be highlighted. This section will also include the expected cash figures that will enable the project to be effectively implemented from the development of the curriculum to the support for tuition fees and buying of books.

Statement of need This is the second part where the potential sponsors need to see that the project is in real existence, in the hands of capable people and that the funding would lead to benefits…… [Read More].